Politics and Governance

  • The May 2016 automated national and local elections results showed that around 21.5 percent (3,849) of the elected posts, including ARMM elections, were won by women candidates, higher than the 20.0 percent turnout in 2013. Men consistently dominated the political sphere at 14,092 elected positions in 2016 equivalent to 78.5 percent. Its proportion is slightly lower than the 2013 election results at 80.0 percent.

  •  The number of women candidates for the same election period was only 8,664 or 19.4 percent of the total number of candidates compared to men at 36,081 or 80.6 percent. The proportion is slightly higher than the 2013 results at 7,994 (17.9%) with men at 36,411 (82.1%).

  • Likewise, there were only 8 women who run for election out of 50 senatorial candidates (16.0%), of which 2 entered the top 12 winning senators (16.7%). Women participation in the 2013 senatorial election was higher at 24.2 percent (8 out of 33 senatorial candidates) with 4 women elected (33.3%).

  • There are 68 women Representatives elected in the 17th Congress (2016 National and Local Election). They accounted for 28.6 percent of the total 238 Representatives as members of the Lower House. The figure is higher than the 60 women (25.6%) who had secured memberships in the House of Representatives during the 16th Congress.

Comparative Statistics on Elected Candidates by Elective Position, by Sex: Philippines, 2001 – 2016

Elective Position

2001

2004 

2007

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

President

-

-

-

1

0

1

-

-

-

Vice-President

-

-

-

1

1

0

-

-

-

Senator

13

12

1

12

9

3

12

11

1

Congressman

209

173

36

212

180

32

218

173

45

Governor

78

65

13

79

64

15

80

62

18

Vice-Governor

78

68

10

79

72

7

80

67

13

Board Member

735

618

117

756

628

128

790

665

125

City/Mun Mayor

1,602

1,343

259

1,605

1,360

245

1,595

1,322

273

City/Mun Vice-Mayor

1,602

1,405

197

1,606

1,382

224

1,597

1,367

230

City/Mun Councilor

13,142

10,779

2,363

13,200

10,937

2,263

13,140

10,805

2,335

Total

17,459

14,463

2,996

17,551

14,633

2,918

17,512

14,472

3,040

Percentage

-

82.8%

17.2%

-

83.4%

16.6%

-

82.6%

17.4%

 

Elective Position

2010

2013

2016

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

President

1

1

0

-

-

-

1

1

0

Vice-President

1

1

0

-

-

-

1

0

1

Senator

12

10

2

12

8

4

12

10

2

Congressman

229

179

50

234

174

60

238

170

68

Governor

80

64

16

80

62

18

81

62

19

Vice-Governor

80

70

10

80

69

11

80

66

14

Board Member

765

644

121

766

625

141

776

622

154

City/Mun Mayor

1,619

1,300

319

1,627

1,284

343

1,625

1,248

377

City/Mun Vice-Mayor

1,618

1,356

262

1,627

1,350

277

1,625

1,303

322

City/Mun Councilor

13,342

10,831

2,511

13,459

10,737

2,722

13,476

10,588

2,888

ARMM Governor

-

-

-

1

1

0

1

1

0

ARMM Vice-Governor

-

-

-

1

1

0

1

1

0

ARMM Assembly

-

-

-

24

20

4

24

20

4

Total

17,747

14,456

3,291

17,911

14,331

3,580

17,941

14,092

3,849

Percentage

-

81.5%

18.5%

-

80.0%

20.0%

-

78.5%

21.5%

 

  • There were 19 (23.5%) women Governors, 14 (17.5%) Vice-Governors,  377 (23.2%) City/Municipal Mayors and 322 (19.8%) Vice-Mayors, elected in 2016. The figures are a bit higher than the 2013 election with 18 women Governors; 11 Vice-Governors; 343 City/Municipal Mayors; and 277 Vice-Mayors.

  • In comparison, there were 62 (76.5%) male Governors; 66 (82.5%) Vice-Governors; 1,248 (76.8%) City/Municipal Mayors; and 1,303 (80.2%) Vice-Mayors in 2016 election.

  • The number of registered voters steadily increased in the past national and local elections – from 50.9M in 2010 to 52.0M in 2013 and 54.4M in 2016. Women comprised more than half of registered voters in all three elections.

  • Voter turnout, which is computed by dividing the total votes cast by the total number of registered voters, is generally higher for women than men. COMELEC data show that women voter turnout in 2016 election is 80.1 percent compared to men at 79.1 percent which is below the national figure at 79.6 percent.

  • In 2013 election, women’s voter turnout is 78.2 percent while men’s is 76.8 percent which is also below the national turn-out at 77.3 percent.

  • In the May 2010 automated national and local elections voter turnout is higher for women at 75.7 percent compared to men at 74.4 percent. The national figure is 75.0 percent.

  • In 2007 and 2004 elections, voter turnouts for women were higher than men and the national figures. Women voter turnout was 73.3 percent in 2007 while that of men was 72.8 percent and the national figure at 73.1 percent. In 2004, women voter turnout was 77.5 percent compared to men at 76.4 percent while the national figure was 76.9 percent.

  • A women’s rights organization has secured Party-list representation in Congress since 2004. Civil society/private sector organizations that carry the agenda of marginalized sectors vie for a limited number of seats in the House of Representatives.
     In the 2016 national and local election, a total of 59 Party-list Representatives were given seats in the House of Congress representing a total of 46 Party-list organizations and coalitions; two represented a women’s organization – Gabriela Women’s Party (GWP) which also won in the 2010, 2007 and 2004 national elections.

  • Of the total 59 elected Party-list Representatives, 18 are women (31.6%) which is higher than the 2010 figure at 14 (25%). In 2007 election, 6 out of 21 Pary-list Representatives (28.6%) were women, while in 2004, 4 out of 23 elected Party-list Representatives (17.4%) were women.

  • The number of female judges has slowly increased through the years. There was a decrease in 2010 where the numbers dropped by 33.6% but it continuously increased until 2015 where the numbers have been at its highest since 2000. Meanwhile, the number of male judges generally decreased from 2000 to 2010, increasing only in years 2004, 2006 and 2007 where their count was at its peak. There was a huge drop in 2010 where their numbers decreased by 47.3% but an increasing trend was seen from that point up to 2015. –PSA Handbook

  • In the Supreme Court, 20% of 15 justices in 2001 were women; 27% in 2002; 29% in 2003; 33% in 2004; 36% both in 2005 and 2006; 43% in 2007; 36% in 2008; 15% in 2009; and 21% both in 2010 and 2011.
     Statistics on women lawyers showed a decreasing trend of disparity from its male counterpart. In 2001, the percentage of women bar passers was 40.44 percent (512).

  • It decreased in 2002 at 39.04 percent (358) but increased in 2003, 2004, and 2005 at 43.68 percent (484), 46.31 percent (765), and 48.27 percent (724) respectively. Men continue to dominate the list of Bar passers.

  • Women dominate the bureaucracy especially the technical or second-level. Based on the 2004 data of the Civil Service Commission, women make up the majority of the bureaucracy, accounting for 58.7 percent of the total 1.31 million government personnel.

  • Women in the bureaucracy are likely to be technical personnel and men are likely to be clerks or managers/executives.

  • As of February 2017, the percentage of women occupying CES positions (3rd level positions) is 43.5 percent – around two percent higher than the 2014 and 2015 reports.

 

Number of Women and Men Occupying 3rd Level positions, Philippines: 2009 - 2017

Source: Career Executive Service Board (CESB)
Note: 2012 data do not include non-eligibles but occupying CES positions

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