• The 2008 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) shows that of the estimated 68 million Filipinos 10 years old and over in 2008, 95.6% are basically literate. The basic literacy rate among females is 96.1% while 95.1% among males.



  • Functional literacy among females in the same period is also higher at 88.7% as against 84.2% among males.

  • In the 2003 FLEMMS, the results show that 8 out of 100 (more than 2 million) Filipino women and 11 out of 100 (around 3 million) Filipino men cannot read and write.

  • There were an estimated 5 million illiterates of the 58 million Filipinos 10 to 64 years old during that period.

  • Women who are considered basically literate (those who can only read and write) were estimated at 26 million (90 for every 100 women), higher than men at an estimated 25 million (87 in every 100 men). This is evident in the elementary and high school completion rates where females were consistently higher than males.

  • Aside from acquiring basic literacy, women with numerical skills (functional literacy) were estimated at 25 million (86 for every 100 women), also higher than men with numerical skill estimated at 24 million (82 for every 100 men).

  • Another requisite of functional literacy aside from the basic reading, writing and numerical skill is the ability to communicate and comprehend.  In that period, there were an estimated 20 million (69 in every 100) women in this level of functional literacy while men in this level were estimated at 18 million only (63 in every 100).

  • Girls have fared better in terms of enrolment indicators in elementary and secondary education. At public elementary level during the school year 2010-2011, female Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) was computed at 91.07 percent while male NER was lower at 88.78 percent. This means that there were around 9 in every 100 girls and 11 in every 100 boys aged 6 to 11 who did not go to school during that period.

  • The Gender Parity Index (GPI) which is used to assess differences between girls and boys enrollment is computed at 1.03 (103 girls in every 100 boys) which means that more girls had enrolled in elementary education than boys during that period.

  • The Net Enrollment Ratio in the public secondary level during the same school year was lesser compared with elementary level. Female NER was 66.09 percent (66 in every 100 girls) while male NER was 56.63 percent (57 in every 100 boys) all aged 12 to 15 years. There was a greater disparity between girls and boys in high school at 1.17 GPI which is equivalent to 117 girls in every 100 boys. 
  • The completion rates for SY 2010-2011 indicated that more girls were able to complete the prescribed number of years in both elementary and secondary education. The completion rate of females at the elementary level was 77.14 percent (77 in every 100 girls), while male completion rate was 67.65 percent (68 in every 100 boys) with 1.14 GPI (114 girls in every 100 boys).

  • The completion rate of female in the secondary level is higher at 80.27 percent (80 in every 100 girls) compared with that of male at 69.88 percent (70 in every 100 boys), with gender disparity at 1.15 GPI or equivalent to 115 girls in every 100 boys.

  • Average Dropout Rate (ADR) at the elementary level was lower for female at 5.02 percent compared with male at 7.45 percent. This means that 5 in every 100 girls and 7 in every 100 boys failed to finish the school year 2010-2011. The Gender Parity Index is computed at 0.67 which implies that only 69 girls in every 100 boys dropped out in that period.

  • For the school year, 2006-2007, the recorded number of enrollees in government Madrasah elementary school reached a total of 240,072 students. It accounted barely for 2 percent of the total enrollment for that period. Females were recorded at 126,213 (52.57%) while males at 113,859 (47.43%). The number of high school students in Madrasah schools was very minimal compared to elementary data. The recorded number was only 34,241 with females accounting for 57.24 percent while males at 42.76 percent.

  • For the same school year, the number of students in the elementary level who belong to the indigenous peoples was 337,616 or barely 3 percent of the total enrolment in the elementary level. Females were slightly less than males at 167,610 (49.65%). High school records showed a total of 86,771 students from the indigenous peoples, of which 53.76 percent (46,644) were females.

  • For higher education enrollment during the school year 2005-2006, females accounted for more than half of the total 2,483,645 enrollees at 54.48 percent compared with males at 45.52 percent. In terms of school preference, 6 in every 10 women and 7 in every 10 men preferred to enroll in private universities and colleges than in public.

  • For the same school year, Medical and Allied Discipline courses posted the highest percentage of female enrollees at 27.44 percent followed by Business Administration and Related Discipline at 24.35 percent. In the preceding school year, Business Administration and Related Discipline posted the highest percentage of female enrollees at 24.77 percent followed by Medical and Allied Discipline at 23.25 percent. The increasing number of students, both female and male, who took up nursing courses, may have caused this surge.

  • Among the 263,634 graduates for school year 2005-2006, female graduates accounted for 56.61 percent (149,246) while males accounted for 43.39 percent (114,388). Business Administration and Related Discipline produced 48,369 (18.35%) female graduates while Medical and Allied Discipline produced 37,371 (14.18%) female graduates. Education and Teacher Training which came third produced 24,523 (9.30%) female graduates.

  • Among women enrollees and graduates in vocational courses from July 2005-August 2006, Housekeeping and Guestroom Maintenance accounted for the highest number at 13.27 percent and 14.07 percent respectively. Jewelry making accounted for the least number of enrollees at 7.40 percent and graduates at 6.73 percent.

  • As of July 2010, the percentage of licensed professional women was higher at 63.7 percent than licensed professional men at 36.3 percent (1,860,901 vs. 1,060,404). And of the total 1,860,901 professional women, Teachers accounted for the highest percentage at 44 percent (819,377), followed by Nurses at 27 percent (504,902). Among the women dominated professions, Midwives top the list followed by Nutri-Dietitians, Social Workers, Pharmacists, Librarians, Guidance Counselors, Dental Hygienists, Interior Designers, Teachers, and Nurses.

  • In the school year 2008-2009, data revealed that 89.58 percent of the public elementary school teachers are female; only 10.42 percent are male teachers. In the public secondary schools, 77.06 percent are female; only 22.94 percent are male teachers.

  • The 2007 Census of Population also shows that about 3 out of 5 persons (63.3 percent) in the household population 5 to 24 years old had attended school at anytime during the School Year 2007 to 2008. School attendance was higher among females (64.0 percent of all females aged 5 to 24 years) than among males (62.7 percent of all males aged 5 to 24 years) during the said school year.

  • Other census finding is that, among those with academic degrees, there were more females (56.2 percent) than males (43.8 percent). Similarly, among those with post baccalaureate courses, females (56.3 percent) outnumbered males (43.7 percent).