Violence Against Women (VAW)

  • A nationwide survey on violence against women, called Women Safety Module, was conducted for the first time in the country by the National Statistics Office (NSO), now Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), through its 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The VAW module aims to capture the extent and types of VAW experienced by women (15-49 years old). Information was collected on spousal violence - covering all forms of VAW: 1) physical violence; 2) sexual violence; 3) emotional violence; and 4) economic violence (the 3rd and 4th forms of VAW were grouped together in the survey as “other forms of violence”). The module also included questions on marital control, which may fall either under emotional/psychological violence or economic violence. 
  • In 2013, five years after the first VAW related survey was conducted, the former National Statistics Office conducted the 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) wherein Women’s Safety Module was again included.

Physical Violence

  • Both NDHS (2008 and 2013) revealed that one in five women aged 15-49 has experienced physical violence since age 15. In the 12 months preceding each survey period, 6 percent experienced in 2013 while 7 percent experienced in 2008.

  • Among ever-married women, there is a decrease in the proportion who report CURRENT husband/partner committing violence, from 54.7 percent in 2008 to 44.4 percent in 2013. But there is an increase in the proportion (22.1%) who report FORMER husband/partner committing violence from 12 percent in 2008.

  • Among regions, Bicol (24.8%) and CARAGA (24.7%) posted the top two highest proportions of women who have experienced physical violence. ARMM posted the lowest at 15.1 percent.
     

Percentage of Women Age 15-49 Who Experienced Physical Violence

Sexual Violence

  •  In the 2013 NDHS, 6.3 percent (1 out of 16) of women age 15-49 have experienced sexual violence which is lower than the 8.7 percent (1 out of 11) reported in 2008 NDHS.

  • Among regions, Bicol (11.4%) and SOCCSKSARGEN (11.4%) posted the highest proportions of women who have experienced sexual violence. ARMM posted the lowest at 2.7 percent.
     

 

Physical Violence During Pregnancy

  • The 2013 NDHS findings on physical violence during pregnancy have little difference from its predecessor. Both surveys have generated the same proportion (4%) of women who have ever been pregnant that have experienced physical violence during pregnancy.

  • The 2013 NDHS findings on physical violence during pregnancy have little difference from its predecessor. Both surveys have generated the same proportion (4%) of women who have ever been pregnant that have experienced physical violence during pregnancy.

  • The incident increases slightly with number of living children; decreases slightly with age; decreases    with    education   level; and declines steadily with wealth quintile.
     

Physical Violence by Wealth Quintile

Physical Violence by Wealth Quintile

 

Physical Violence by Education

Spousal Violence

  • Emotio  Emotional and other forms of non-personal violence are the most common types of spousal violence (23% in 2008 and 22% in 2013). For physical violence, 14.4 percent (1 in 7) ever-married women in 2008 experienced physical violence by their husbands while 8.0 percent (1 in 12) experienced sexual violence by their husbands. The figures in 2013 are 12.7 percent (1 in 8) and 5.3 percent (1 in 19) respectively.

  • Patterns in prevalence of spousal violence are similar to those of violence experienced by woman 15-49. Most likely higher, in 2008, among separated, widowed and divorced; currently married women who have married more than once; and in  CARAGA region, Central Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN. In 2013, it was higher in Northern Mindanao, Davao and Cagayan Valley.

Physical Violence by Marital Status

 

Spousal Violence by Husband's Characteristics

  • Spousal Violence tends to decline as husband's age increases, education increases, and wealth quintile increases.

Consequences of Spousal Violence

  • Close to 30 percent of women, in 2008, who experienced physical/sexual violence reported having injuries such as cuts, bruises or aches. 11.2 percent reported to have suffered eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns, and about the same proportion (11%) reported that they attempted to commit suicide. More than one-half (55%) reported having experienced depression, anxiety and anger.

  • In 2013, the figures increase for physical injuries (35%) and attempted suicide (12.1%), and decrease for eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns (7.3%) and psychological consequences like depression, anxiety and anger (44.5%)
     

Violence Initiated by Women Against Husbands

  • For both surveys, women were asked, “Have you ever hit, slapped, kicked, or done anything else to physically hurt your (last) husband at times when he was not already beating or physically hurting you?”  In 2008 NDHS, 16 percent answered “Yes, ever” and 9 percent answered “Yes, in the last 12 months”. The figures are almost the same in 2013.

 

Help-Seeking Behavior by Women Who Experienced Violence

  • in 2013, only 30 percent of women who have experienced any type of physical or sexual violence sought assistance to stop violence; 27 percent never sought help but told someone; and a higher proportion of women (38%) never sought nor told anyone about their ordeal.

  • Among regions, CAR has the highest number of women (40%) who sought help to stop violence while Davao got the most number of women (50%) who never sought help nor told anyone about the physical or sexual violence they have experienced.
     

 

VAW Reported to the Philippine National Police

VAW Cases Reported to the PNP: 1997-2013

Rape Cases Reported to the PNP: 1997-2013

RA 9262 Cases Reported to the PNP: 2004-2013

Physical Injury Cases Reported to PNP: 1997-2013

  • In 2016 the number of VAW cases reported to the Philippine National Police (PNP) is 40,536 which is 13 percent higher than the 2015 report at 35,897 cases. It should be noted, however, that PNP had adapted a different template in tabulating reports starting in 2015. The new PNP VAW matrix includes other categories which explains the presence of a category ‘Others’ and blank cells for categories omitted.

  • The 2014 report remains the highest so far at 46,786 reported VAW cases since 1997.  It decreases by 23.3 percent in 2015 but increases again by 12.9 percent in 2016. The trend, however, is not conclusive of an increasing or decreasing VAW incidence in the country because data are based only from what was reported to PNP.

  • RA 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children (VAWC) Act of 2004 penalizes abusive husbands and live-in partners. Continuous information campaign on the law especially during 18 Day Campaign to End VAW conducted every November, and its strict implementation may have caused the increasing reports over the years.

  • Across a thirteen-year period from 2004 to 2016, the accumulated number of reported cases of RA 9262 is the highest at 158,353 (68.9%) among the different VAW categories since the implementation of the law in 2004. The reported cases continue to increase from 218 in 2004 to 34,819 in 2016.

  • Physical injury is the second most prevalent case (28,731 cases) until 2014, accounting for 18.7 percent of all reported VAW cases nationwide. The 2014 report is so far the highest reported physical injury at 7,727 cases.

  • Wife battering cases have been categorized under ‘Violation of RA 9262’ since 2004, that is, if the victim files a case under such law, otherwise the reported cases fall under physical injury category.

  • Reported rape cases which ranked third accounted for about 7.5 percent (11,498 cases) of total reported VAW cases from 2004 to 2014. The 2014 report is still the highest number of reported rape at 2,048 cases.

  • Among the different regions, Region 11 (Davao Region) posted the highest reported VAW cases from January to December 2016 with 7,031 cases, accounting for 17.3 percent of the total 40,536 reported VAW cases nationwide in the same period.

  • Region 6 (Western Visayas) comes next at 3,866 (9.5%) reported cases followed by Region 18 (Negros Island Region) with 3,437 (8.5%) reported cases and Region 5 (Bicol Region) with 3,192 cases or 7.9 percent of the total reported VAW cases nationwide. The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) posted the lowest reported VAW with 161 cases.

Table 14.  Annual Comparative Statistics on Violence Against Women (VAW) Reported to the Police: Philippines, 2004 – 2016

Source: Philippine National Police – Women and Children Protection Center (PNP-WCPC)
*/ RA 9208 no longer included in the PNP VAW matrix starting in 2015
**/ Others include Anti-Photo & Video Voyeurism (RA 9995), Anti-Mail Order Bride (RA 6955), Rape with Homicide, Gender Based Homicide/Murder, Parricide (wife victim), Forcible Abduction, Consented Abduction, Bigamy, Intentional Abortion, Unintentional Abortion, White Slave Trade, Abuses against Chastity, etc.

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